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Later Zoroastrian Literature

  1. Aredvi -- The River and the Boon Goddess
    Jafarey, Dr. Ali Akbar
    The Yashts are Zoroastrian texts composed - many centuries after Zarathushtra - in veneration of creation, emphasizing the need to protect and safeguard nature.  This article gives a well rounded discussion based on the Yashta.

  2. Fravašis and Fravardégân
    Bode, Framroze

    The concept of Fravašis - emphasized in the later Zoroastrian literature - and its relation to the living and creation and its place in the bigger scheme of life is explained in this paper. 

  3. Initiation into the Good Religion (Sadreh-pűshi -- Navjote)
    Jafarey, Dr. Ali Akbar
    Sadreh-Pushi (Navjote) is the initiation ceremony into the Good Religion that has evolved over time. This article gives a brief review of the ceremony and the prayers recited.

  4. Is The Vandidad a Zarathushtrian Scripture?
    Shahzadi,Mobed Rostam

    A review of evolution of Zarathushtrian priesthood, religious practices, and the adaptation of temporal laws as religious laws, and some of the causes of deviation from the original message of Zarathushtra is given. 

  5. On becoming a Zoroastrian in Italy
    Moramarco, Michele
    Author takes us on his personal journey of discovery as he explores human spirituality, philosophy and psychotherapy that led him to the study of Zoroastrianism. Michele provides valuable insights on the similarity and differences of different schools of thoughts he explored in his personal intellectual quest.

  6. Setting The World Alight, Reflections on the Frashkart
    Antolak, Ryszard J.

    Drawing on younger Avesta, the Gathas, and later Persian sources, the author presents a thought provoking view of renewal and evolution towards perfection.

  7. Seven Gems from the Later Literature
    McIntyre, Dina G.

    With passage of much time since the life  of Zarathushtra, the Zarathushtrian religion literature produced in the first millennium A.D. had a lot of ethical under-toning. Some of the literature reflected  non-Zarathushtrian  influences that had crept in. The philosophical emphasize of Zarathushtra’s doctrine was not always evident in the religious texts of that period. In this article, the author highlights seven fine examples of the strength of Zarathushtra’s wisdom captured in  literature of that period.

  8. The Avesta, An Introduction
    Jafarey, Dr. Ali Akbar
    The evolution and origin of various texts of the Zarathushtrian religion starting with the poetic compositions of Zarathushtra himself is discussed in this book. The information contained in this article serves as a good reference.

  9. The Core and the Externals
    McIntyre, Dina G.

    The evolution of the textual sources of the Zarathushtrian religion is examined and the deviations from the original message of the faith is given perspective.

  10. The Essence of Benevolent Nature
    Kerr, Dr. Sam

    This article tries to trace historical, social and scriptural evidence to emphasis that the Gathic/Avestan peoples were among the first recorded ‘greenies’. Mary Boyce describes this appropriately “Zarathushtra’s people were settled pastoralists, who tended cattle and sheep and goats and who kept dogs for herding and hunting in the rich grasslands and dense forests. …….they saw themselves as custodians as well as dependants, thus becoming one with the natural world."

  11. The Prophet's Utterances (Part 1)
    Kerr, Dr. Sam
    This is an attempt to see if the Prophet’s divine revelations, uttered in parables, can be better understood. The author, fascinated by the devoted Sanskrit/Gathic/Avestan scholar, Irach J. S. Taraporewala’s monumental comparative study and rendering of the Prophets hymns, embarked on this essay hoping it will help stimulate further inquiry. Himself only a searching student he would have created many flaws - errors, which can always be corrected, for the benefit of others, by those who wish to read.
  12. The Prophet's Utterances (Part 2)
    Kerr, Dr. Sam
    This article is Part 2 in the series on "The Prophet's  utterances".  Here, Dr. Sam Kerr presents another Gāthic word ‘Khratu’ and its parallel ‘Kratu’ in the Ŗg Vēdā.   The purpose of this rather time-consuming undertaking, apart from pointing towards the closeness of the Vēdic Āryānic and the Gāthic Āiryānic peoples, is to provide a ready reference to researchers and scholars of this interesting subject matter.  
  13. The Talisman
    McIntyre, Dina G.
    This article explores the reasons why the Ahuna Vairya prayer has held such a special place in the long history of the Zarathushti religion, as a means for defeating evil and transcending our mortality.

  14. Three Prayers and the Name of God
    McIntyre, Dina G.
    In this article Dina takes her reader into the explanatory world the first three prayers every Zarathushti learns, a thought provoking article. 

  15. Universal Elements Forming the Fundamentals of the Religion of Zarathushtra
    Homji, Dasturji Nowrooz D. Minocher
    The universality of the Religion tradition introduced by Zarathushtra and the unique and humanistic aspects of the same are discussed in this easy to comprehend speech delivered in 1984.

  16. What Does 'KHVAETVADATHA' Mean?
    Jafarey, Dr. Ali Akbar

    The word 'khvaetvadatha' occurs only five times in the entire Avestan text.  Its misinterpretation has given rise to speculation of marriage of next of kin has been endorsed in Zoroastrianism. An in-depth analysis of the significance of the Avestan word 'khvaetvadatha' is provided in this article.

  17. Why The Vendidad?

    Vendidad is a collection of ancient scientific knowledge, geographical information, and Sassanian era civil laws.  Its historical and relgious significance is explored in this insightful article.