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A Web Journal on Zoroastrian Heritage

This issue of the Vohuman is dedicated to the memories of Ardeshir Khâze and Ardeshir Jahanian for their tireless efforts in bringing about progress and advancement to their community.






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Book Review


Prominent Zarathushtis

Visual Essays


Zoroastrian Film Project


Darius the Great in Behistun, World's largest rock inscription and relief.


Ardeshir Jahanian


Gathic Illustration

Twin Mainyus - The Gathic Doctrine
Bagli, Ervad Dr. Jehan
The ethical duality of Good and Evil confronts all the religious traditions. Prophet Zarathushtra was historically the first spiritual leader to deal with this aspect in a uniquely reflective manner. This is elaborated in his words in Yasna-30 of the Ahunavaiti Gatha.

Metaphor in the Gathas, Part 3: The Amesha Spenta as Allegories
McIntyre, Dina G.
Author analyzes Zarathushtra's introduction of the Amesha Spenta "Holy Immortals" in detail, and his enigmatic use of the singular and the plural in addressing Ahura Mazda "The Lord of Wisdom." Dina makes conclusions with discussion on his thoughts regarding the nature of divinity.

Personal Perspective

Any friend of Zarathushtra is a friend of ours
Abreu, Jose Luis

In this thought-provoking article the Zarathushtrian perspective on what constitutes the basis of friendship and the camaraderie of the righteous is presented.

Words of Darius in Behistun and Mehregan Festival
Varza, Jamshid
In Behistun, world's largest rock relief and inscription, Darius the Great gives his account of his triumphs. See images of this magnificent ancient inscription and details of its decipherment.

A festival of great importance to Persians known as Mehrgan or Mithrakana was considered ancient when Achaemenian kings celebrated it. It was during this festival that Darius identifies Gaumata, the false Smerdis, thus saving the Empire. Smerdis, or Bardya, was the second of son of Cyrus the Great who was going to succeed Cambyses.

Prominent Zarathushtis

Ardeshir Goodarz Jahanian
Mehrfar, Dr. Khosro E.
The story of Jahanian's life is stuff heroic legends are made of. His tireless struggle  to study, teaching and preservation of Iranian Zarathushti heritage is one remarkable struggle. A successful Zarathushti merchant from a modest merchant family in Yazd rose to prominence for his efforts and contributions to his Zarathushti community.

Book Review

Memoirs of Ardeshir Khâzè
Soroushian, Dr. Mehrborzin
Khaze's life, a Zartathushti boy growing up in village of Allahabad near Yazd, is one's grand mission to amoralities the conditions of his community. This book is a compilation of his life memories and experiences. It is a valuable source of information on daily life for Zarathushtians of Iran during the period covering late 19th and early twentieth centuries.


The Cypress of Kashmar and Zoroaster
Abraham V. W. Jackson
In this research article from Jackson's "Zoroastrian Studies," book, he follows several references by Muslim and Iranian historians to a legend surrounding a monumental Cypress tree believed to be planted by prophet Zoroaster, and its destruction by Caliph Al Mutawakkil.

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